Euphorbia flanaganii (Medusa’s Head) Plant

Euphorbia flanaganii, commonly known as “Medusa’s Head” or “Octopus Plant,”. It is native to the Eastern Cape province of South Africa, where it is found in rocky and arid areas. Its natural habitat is characterized by well-draining soils and receives limited rainfall.

The most distinctive feature of Euphorbia flanaganii is its growth habit, which resembles the twisting and curling snakes or tentacles of an octopus or the serpentine hair of the mythological Medusa. Its stems are thick and fleshy, forming a tangled mass of cylindrical columns. The stem tips often branch out, giving it a unique and captivating appearance.

Euphorbia flanaganii, like many other succulents, has adapted to survive in arid environments. Its fleshy stems store water, allowing the plant to endure extended periods of drought. It produces small, inconspicuous flowers, often in clusters at the stem tips. The flowers are greenish-yellow and do not have showy petals. The plant’s main ornamental appeal comes from its unusual growth form rather than its flowers.

As a popular succulent, Euphorbia flanaganii is cultivated and grown by succulent enthusiasts and gardeners worldwide. It is well-suited to container gardening and can be grown indoors as a potted plant or outdoors in dry, well-drained soil.

How Does Euphorbia flanaganii Look Like?

  • Growth Form: Euphorbia flanaganii is a low-growing succulent that reaches a height of around 6 to 12 inches (15 to 30 centimeters). It forms a compact, clump-forming rosette that gradually spreads as it matures.
  • Stems: The stems are thick, fleshy, and serpent-like stems. These stems emerge from the center of the rosette and sprawl outward in a tangled, snakelike fashion. The stems are light green to bluish-green in color and are covered in small, raised tubercles or bumps.
  • Branching: As the plant matures, it can develop multiple stems that branch out from the base, creating a dense cluster of stems that resemble a mass of snakes or tentacles, hence the common name “Medusa’s Head.”
  • Spines: Unlike many other Euphorbia species, Euphorbia flanaganii does not have true spines or thorns. Instead, it has small, soft, and bristle-like structures called “spine shields” at the base of each tubercle. These spine shields are not sharp.
  • Leaves: Euphorbia flanaganii has tiny, scale-like leaves that are inconspicuous and often fall off as the plant matures. These leaves are not the main photosynthetic structures; instead, the green stems perform most of the photosynthesis.
  • Flowers: In the spring or early summer, Euphorbia flanaganii may produce small, inconspicuous flowers at the tips of its stems. The flowers are typically yellow to greenish-yellow and are not particularly showy.
  • Roots: Like other succulents, Euphorbia flanaganii has shallow, fibrous roots designed to absorb water quickly during rainfall and store it for periods of drought.

Ways you can use Euphorbia flanaganii

  • Container Gardening: It thrives in containers and pots and therefore good for both indoor and outdoor gardens. Plant it in a well-draining succulent mix and place the container in a bright location with indirect sunlight.
  • Rock Gardens: This succulent is well-suited for rock gardens, where it can add an eye-catching focal point. Ensure the soil is well-draining and mix in some small stones or gravel to mimic its natural habitat.
  • Xeriscaping: The plant is drought-tolerant and can thrive in xeriscape gardens, which are designed to conserve water. Plant it alongside other drought-resistant plants to create a low-maintenance, water-efficient landscape.
  • Succulent Arrangements: Incorporate Euphorbia flanaganii into succulent arrangements and dish gardens. Its unique appearance adds a touch of whimsy to any succulent display. Ensure the container has proper drainage and use a well-draining soil mix.
  • Indoor Ornamental Plant: Euphorbia flanaganii can also be grown as an indoor ornamental plant. Place it in a sunny window or under grow lights if you don’t have access to sufficient natural sunlight. Water sparingly, allowing the soil to dry out between waterings to prevent root rot.

How to grow and care for Euphorbia flanaganii

To successfully grow and care for Euphorbia flanaganii, follow these guidelines:

How much light do Euphorbia flanaganii Need?

Euphorbia flanaganii thrives in bright, indirect sunlight, which closely mimics its natural habitat conditions. If you’re growing Euphorbia flanaganii indoors, place it near a south or east-facing window. These windows generally provide the ideal balance of bright, indirect light. You can also use a sheer curtain to diffuse the sunlight if it’s too intense.

If you’re cultivating it outdoors, choose a location with filtered sunlight. A spot that receives morning sun and dappled shade in the afternoon is ideal. Avoid placing it in direct, harsh sunlight, especially during the hottest part of the day.

In regions with intense sunlight and hot climates, protect your Euphorbia flanaganii from the scorching sun. Provide it with shade during the peak of summer to prevent sunburn, which can cause irreversible damage to the plant.

During the growing season, which typically spans from spring through summer, Euphorbia flanaganii benefits from slightly brighter light. However, even during this period, avoid placing it in direct, unfiltered sunlight.

As fall and winter approach, and the plant may enter a semi-dormant state, it can tolerate lower light levels. Still, it should receive bright, indirect light to remain healthy and avoid becoming leggy.

What is the best Soil Medium For Euphorbia flanaganii?

The best soil medium for Euphorbia flanaganii is one that offers excellent drainage while retaining some moisture. You can create a suitable mix by blending regular potting soil with materials like perlite, coarse sand, or pumice in a 1:1 ratio. These additions improve drainage, prevent waterlogged roots, and mimic the rocky, sandy conditions of its native habitat.

While Euphorbia flanaganii prefers fast-draining soil, a small amount of organic matter can help retain some moisture without making the soil overly wet. You can include a small percentage of well-rotted compost or coconut coir (coconut fiber) in the mix.

Ensure that the pot or container you use has drainage holes at the bottom to allow excess water to escape. This prevents waterlogged roots, which can be detrimental to Euphorbia flanaganii’s health.

Temperature Needs

Euphorbia flanaganii prefers a warm and moderate climate. It thrives in temperatures ranging from 70°F to 80°F (21°C to 27°C) during its active growing season, which occurs in spring and summer. These temperatures mimic the warm conditions of its native habitat.

In the fall and winter, as the plant may enter a semi-dormant or rest period, it can tolerate slightly cooler temperatures down to 50°F (10°C). Avoid exposing it to frost or freezing temperatures, as this can cause damage or even kill the plant.

While this plant enjoys warmth, it’s important to protect it from extreme heat, especially in hot summer months. In regions with scorching summers, provide the plant with some shade during the hottest part of the day to prevent sunburn and heat stress.

If you’re growing it indoors, ensure that it’s not placed near radiators, heaters, or other heat sources that can cause it to become overheated.

Appropriate Humidity Range

Euphorbia flanaganii is native to the arid regions where humidity levels are low. As a result, it is well-suited to drier environments and can thrive in relatively low humidity conditions.

If you’re growing Euphorbia flanaganii indoors, standard indoor humidity levels are generally sufficient for its well-being. Most homes maintain a humidity range of 30% to 60%, which is acceptable for this succulent.

Avoid placing the plant in areas with extremely high humidity, such as bathrooms or kitchens, as excessive moisture in the air can potentially lead to fungal issues.

If you live in an exceptionally dry climate or are concerned about low indoor humidity during the winter months when indoor heating can reduce humidity levels, you can use humidity trays or pebble trays. These involve placing a shallow tray filled with water and pebbles near the plant. As the water evaporates, it increases the immediate humidity around the succulent.

Providing proper air circulation around your Euphorbia flanaganii can help prevent humidity-related issues such as mold or mildew. Ensure that there’s adequate airflow in the growing area to maintain a healthy environment for the plant.


As a succulent native to arid regions, it has specific watering needs that differ from many other houseplants. Ensure that the pot or container has adequate drainage holes at the bottom to allow excess water to escape. Before watering, insert your finger into the soil about an inch deep. Only water when the soil is completely dry at this depth.

When you do water, water sparingly but thoroughly. Ensure that water reaches the root zone, but avoid soaking the soil excessively. Waterlogged soil can lead to root rot and other issues. Water the plant at the base, not on the rosette of stems, to prevent rot.

Use room-temperature, filtered, or distilled water to avoid mineral buildup in the soil. Avoid using water that has been softened with salt, as it can harm the plant.

Adjust your watering routine according to the seasons. During the active growing season in spring and summer, when temperatures are warmer and the plant is actively growing, you may need to water more frequently. On the other hand, reduce watering in the fall and winter when the plant may enter a semi-dormant state.


Euphorbia flanaganii does not need frequent fertilization. It’s generally recommended to fertilize these succulents during their active growing season, which is typically in the spring and summer. Avoid fertilizing during the dormant winter months.

Use a balanced, water-soluble succulent or cactus fertilizer with a diluted concentration. A balanced fertilizer typically has equal proportions of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) in a ratio like 10-10-10 or 20-20-20. Alternatively, you can use a specialized succulent fertilizer.

Always dilute the fertilizer to half or quarter strength compared to the recommended dosage on the packaging. This plant is sensitive to excess nutrients and can suffer from fertilizer burn if it’s too concentrated.

Apply the diluted fertilizer to the soil around the base of the plant. Be cautious not to let the fertilizer touch the plant’s stems or leaves, as this can cause damage. Water the plant thoroughly after applying the fertilizer to distribute it evenly.

Fertilize your plant every 4-6 weeks during the growing season. Avoid fertilizing when the plant is stressed due to overwatering, underwatering, or if it’s newly repotted.

While synthetic succulent fertilizers work well, you can also opt for organic alternatives such as compost tea or diluted fish emulsion. These can provide slow-release nutrients and improve soil health over time.

Potting & Repotting 

The ideal time for repotting is during the active growing season, typically in the spring or early summer. When considering repotting, assess the current pot size and the condition of the plant. If you notice that the Euphorbia flanaganii has outgrown its container, its roots are becoming crowded, or the soil is depleted, it’s time for a transplant.

When repotting, it’s important to select a new pot that is larger than the current one. Ensure the new pot has adequate drainage holes to prevent waterlogging, as these succulents are susceptible to root rot if they remain in consistently damp soil. Prior to removing the plant from its old pot, lightly water it a day or two in advance to make the root ball less fragile during the transplant.

Once you have successfully removed the plant from its old pot and trimmed any damaged roots, carefully place it in the new pot with fresh succulent potting mix. The top of the root ball should be just below the rim of the pot. After repotting, avoid watering for about a week to allow any cut roots to callus and heal. Gradually reintroduce the plant to its regular watering routine.


While these succulents generally have a low-maintenance growth habit, regular pruning can help you control the size and shape of your Euphorbia flanaganii. You can shape it to your desired form and keep it from becoming too unruly.

Firstly, it’s important to note that Euphorbia flanaganii produces a milky, latex-like sap that can be toxic and irritating to the skin and eyes. Therefore, when pruning, always wear protective clothing and gloves to prevent contact with this sap.

Remove any dead or withered stems or branches. This not only improves the plant’s appearance but also prevents potential fungal or bacterial issues from spreading to healthy parts.

Euphorbia flanaganii may sometimes become leggy or elongated due to inadequate sunlight. Pruning can help encourage a more compact and bushy growth habit. Trim back the long stems to promote branching and a more attractive shape.

When pruning, use clean and sharp pruning shears or scissors. Make clean cuts close to the base of the stem or branch you’re removing. Be cautious not to cut into healthy, green tissue, as this can lead to sap leakage. After pruning, allow the cut ends to dry and callus for a few days before exposing them to soil or moisture to reduce the risk of rot.


There are two primary methods of propagating Euphorbia flanaganii: stem cuttings and offsets.

Stem Cuttings

Stem cuttings are one of the most common ways to propagate Euphorbia flanaganii. Here’s how to do it:

  • Choose a healthy stem: Select a stem that is at least a few inches long, and use clean, sharp pruning shears to make a clean cut just below a leaf node.
  • Allow the cutting to callus: Place the cutting in a dry, well-ventilated area for a few days to allow the cut end to callus. This helps prevent rot when the cutting is planted.
  • Plant the cutting: Once the cutting has callused, plant it in a well-draining succulent or cactus potting mix. Water sparingly, and keep the soil lightly moist until roots develop.
  • Root development: Over the course of a few weeks to months, the cutting should develop roots. You can tug gently on the cutting to check for resistance, indicating root growth.
  • Transplanting: Once the cutting has a healthy root system, you can transplant it into a larger pot or its permanent location.


Euphorbia flanaganii occasionally produces offsets, which are small, new growths that emerge at the base of the plant. Propagating from offsets is straightforward:

  • Wait for offsets to form: Allow the plant to produce offsets naturally. These small shoots can be carefully removed once they are a few inches tall and have their own roots.
  • Root the offsets: Plant the offsets in a well-draining succulent mix and water lightly. Keep the soil consistently moist until the young plants establish themselves.
  • Transplant as needed: Once the offsets have grown and established their root systems, you can transplant them into their own pots or outdoor locations.

Diseases & Pests

Euphorbia flanaganii, like many succulent plants, is generally resilient and resistant plant when grown in appropriate conditions. Some cultural issues may include:

Root Rot

Root rot is a common issue in succulents, including Euphorbia flanaganii, and it is often caused by overly wet or poorly-draining soil. Excessive moisture in the root zone can lead to the growth of root-rotting fungi, such as species of Fusarium or Phytophthora.

Symptoms of root rot include wilting, yellowing or browning of leaves, and a foul odor from the soil. Affected roots become dark and mushy. To prevent root rot, ensure your plant is planted in well-draining soil and avoid overwatering. Allow the soil to dry out between waterings and be cautious not to let the plant sit in standing water.


Mealybugs are common pests that can infest Euphorbia flanaganii and other succulents. They are small, soft-bodied insects that feed on plant sap. Infestations of mealybugs are often characterized by the presence of white, cottony masses on the plant, particularly in leaf axils and along stems.

Mealybugs can weaken the plant, cause leaf yellowing and distortion, and excrete a sticky substance called honeydew, which can attract ants and promote the growth of sooty mold. Controlling mealybugs may involve physically removing them with a cotton swab dipped in rubbing alcohol, using insecticidal soap or neem oil, or introducing natural predators like ladybugs.

Powdery Mildew

Powdery mildew is a fungal disease that can affect Euphorbia flanaganii. It appears as a white, powdery substance on the leaves and stems of the plant. Powdery mildew can hinder photosynthesis and weaken the plant over time.

To prevent powdery mildew, ensure good air circulation around the plant, avoid overcrowding, and maintain proper spacing between your succulents. If you notice powdery mildew on your Euphorbia flanaganii, you can treat it with a fungicidal spray or a mixture of water and baking soda.