Mushrooms are a commonly used ingredient in many different types of recipes. However, there are many different types of mushrooms that you may not be familiar with. They all have a different flavor and texture, and some even look different.
The mushrooms can be finely chopped and used as filling in potstickers, dumplings, and egg rolls, diced into omelets, or stuffed and baked. They can also be cooked and added to soups, chowders, sauces, egg dishes, tarts, pasta, lasagna, and pizza.
Mushrooms pair well with meats such as pork, beef, poultry, lamb, and fish, herbs including cilantro, thyme, and parsley, bell pepper, baby corn, broccoli, tofu, parsley, scallops, poultry, lemon, soy, eggplant, sherry, spinach, mustard greens, eggplant, peas, carrots, water chestnuts, and aromatics such as onion, green onion, garlic, and ginger.
Mushrooms are extremely perishable and are recommended to be used immediately for optimum flavor and quality. They also cook relatively quick and are typically added at the end of cooking process.
Portabella mushrooms are large in size and have a rounded, flat cap that averages fifteen centimeters in diameter and is connected to a thick stem. The smooth cap ranges from dark brown to tan and is firm, thick, and spongy. Underneath the cap, there are dark brown, fleshy gills, a small ring from the cotton-like veil, and the stem is fibrous, white, and dense. When cooked, Portabella mushrooms have a memorable chewy and meaty texture and a smoky, earthy flavor.
Cultivated Enoki mushrooms are very small in size and grow in bouquets of tightly packed, long stems topped with petite, convex caps. The snow-white caps are tender, smooth, delicate, and are connected to matching white stems that are thin and can grow up to twelve centimeters in length.
Cultivated Enoki mushrooms are crisp and firm with a crunchy bite and a mild, fruity flavor. Wild Enoki mushrooms are significantly different in appearance from the cultivated form as they have larger caps, shorter stems, range in color from orange to brown, are slightly sticky, rubbery, are velvety in consistency, and have an earthier flavor.
Shiitake mushrooms are small to medium in size with caps averaging 10-20 centimeters in diameter and are attached to thin stems. The caps range in color from light to dark brown and have a wide, umbrella shape with a characteristic curled rim. Inside, the cream-colored flesh is firm, chewy, and spongy.
Underneath the cap, the white gills are tightly arranged, are not attached to the stem, and depending on the maturity, there may also be a thin veil covering the gills. The ivory to light brown stem is smooth, tough, and fibrous. When cooked, Shiitake mushrooms release a garlic-pine aroma and have a savory, earthy, and smoky, umami flavor.
Oyster mushrooms are medium to large in size with caps averaging 5-25 centimeters in diameter and a very short or non-existent stem. The caps are broad and fan-like, ranging in color from dark gray, brown, tan, pink, to yellow, and have curled edges that become wavy and lobed with maturity. White gills extend from beneath the cap, and the flesh is white, meaty, and firm. Oyster mushrooms have a slightly chewy texture and are soft with a bittersweet aroma reminiscent of anise. When cooked, they have a mild and nutty, seafood-like flavor.
Oyster mushrooms are a great option for beginners, since they’re relatively easy to identify and prepare. Plus, they’re one of the most affordable types of mushrooms out there. Whether you’re looking for a new ingredient to add to your next recipe or you’re just getting started with cooking with mushrooms, the oyster mushroom is a great place to start.
Also Read: Different Types of Bananas
Hedgehog mushrooms are small to large in size, averaging 5-17 centimeters in diameter, and are irregular in shape with a flattened, depressed cap and a thin, off-centered stem. The smooth cap can be convex or upturned, is dry, thick, and firm, and ranges in color from yellow, buff, to orange. The cap also has wavy margins and when mature the edges may crack.
Underneath the cap, there are many cream-colored teeth or spore-bearing spines that hang down instead of gills. The stems are also white, orange, or buff, average 3-10 centimeters in length, and depending on the variety may be hollow in the center. When cooked, Hedgehog mushrooms have a fruity aroma and a chewy texture with an earthy, nutty, peppery, and smoky flavor.
White button mushroom
White button mushrooms are small to medium in size with caps averaging 2-7 centimeters in diameter and are attached to short, truncated stems. The smooth white caps are rounded, firm, and spongy. When bruised, the white flesh will turn light pink and will then transform into brown.
Underneath the unopened caps, there are many small, light brown gills that are hidden with a white veil and these gills produce dark brown spores. The short white stem is also edible, dense, thick, and smooth. When raw, White button mushrooms are mild with a crisp texture, and when cooked, they develop an earthy flavor with a tender, chewy texture.
Cremini mushrooms are small to medium in size and have a rounded cap with a short, stubby stem. The smooth cap ranges from light to dark brown and is firm and spongy. Underneath the cap, there are small brown gills, but most of these are hidden as the cap has not fully opened when harvested at the Cremini stage. The short white stem is also edible, dense, thick, and smooth with a slightly rubbery texture. Cremini mushrooms are mild and somewhat earthy with a meaty texture.
Porcini mushrooms are small to large in size with a very thick stem and a rounded cap that averages 7-30 centimeters in diameter. The red-brown to dark brown caps are smooth, slightly sticky, and are convex when young, flattening out with age. Underneath the cap, there are many ivory, spongy tubes which release green-brown spores to propagate. The cream-colored stems average 8-25 centimeters in height and are broad, wide, firm, and dense with small ridges on the bottom portion of the stem. The flesh is white and solid when sliced and emits a yeasty aroma reminiscent of sourdough. When cooked, Porcini mushrooms are creamy, tender, and smooth with a nutty, earthy flavor.
Abalone mushrooms are medium to large in size and are irregular and oblong with a vase-like shape averaging 5-25 centimeters in diameter. The skin is ivory to white and is smooth, silky, plump, and firm with small golden lines and perforations found throughout the surface with many gills under the cap. The cream-colored flesh is crisp, dense, and spongy with a meaty texture. When cooked, Abalone mushrooms are slippery and velvety with an earthy, buttery flavor with notes of pepper.
Saffron Milk Cap Mushroom
Saffron milk cap mushrooms are small to medium in size with caps averaging 6-20 centimeters in diameter that are connected to short stems. The caps are convex-shaped with curled edges when young and flatten out into a slightly depressed shape with straight, flared edges when mature. The bright orange-gold caps also have a granular surface that is mostly dry but can become sticky when wet, developing a green hue with age or bruising.
The flesh is firm, dense, and white, but becomes faintly tinted orange when sliced. Underneath the cap, the crowded gills are bright orange, and when cut, the gills release a white to carrot-colored, latex-like liquid. The stems are hollow and smooth, growing between 5-8 centimeters in length, and may have some spots or pits known as scrobiculations at the base. Saffron milk cap mushrooms have a fruity aroma and a crisp flesh with nutty, earthy, and woodsy flavors.
Also Read: Different Types of Pineapples
Tremella mushrooms are small to medium in size, averaging 5-7 centimeters in diameter, and are thin, ruffled, and made up of branching fronds that are attached to a central base. The fruiting body is white, pale yellow, or tan and is semi-translucent with a smooth, shiny, and gelatinous texture. When young, the mushroom is soft when moist and with age, they begin to shrink and become leathery. Tremella mushrooms have a spicy odor that dissipates with cooking and is chewy and supple with a very mild flavor.
Velvet Pioppini Mushroom
Velvet Pioppini mushrooms are small to medium in size with convex to flattened caps connecting to thin, elongated stems. The firm, soft, and silky caps average 3-10 centimeters in diameter and range in color from dark brown to light brown-grey growing darker towards the center. Underneath the cap, there are small, grey-brown gills containing dark spores and the gills connect to the fibrous cream-colored stem that has a texture similar to asparagus. When cooked, Velvet Pioppini mushrooms have a faint floral aroma and are meaty and crunchy with a nutty, slightly sweet, peppery, and earthy flavor.
Lobster mushrooms are gnarled, contorted fungi, averaging 15-20 centimeters in diameter, and have an irregular shape with little to no stem and a cracked cap. The surface of the cap is textured, firm, and mottled, ranging in color from white to a vibrant orange-red, with split, wavy edges. Underneath the cap, the gills of the host mushroom almost disappear under the parasitic fungus, leaving the area somewhat rippled and disfigured. When sliced, the flesh is white, dense, and spongy with a faint, seafood-like aroma. Lobster mushrooms have a chewy texture with a subtly nutty, woody, and delicate flavor.
Nameko mushrooms are small to medium in size with caps averaging 2-5 centimeters in diameter and slender, straight stems. The smooth, rounded caps are orange to amber with a glossy sheen caused by a natural layer of gelatin coating the surface. With age, the caps will slowly flatten and flare at the edges. Underneath the cap, there are many light yellow to white gills and the stem is tan, 5-7 centimeters in length, flexible, and thin. When cooked, Nameko mushrooms are firm and silky with a cashew-butterscotch aroma and a mildly fruity, nutty, and earthy flavor.
Also Read: Different Types of Kale Varieties
White Silver Dollar Mushroom
White Silver Dollar mushrooms are medium to large in size with caps averaging 4-8 centimeters in diameter and are connected to thick, truncated stems. The smooth, rounded cap protrudes over the stem with curved edges and is thick, spongy, and white to ivory in color gradually developing a brown blush with age.
Underneath the unopened caps, there are many small, light brown gills that produce brown spores that are hidden with a white veil and the white stem is thick, smooth, and edible. White Silver Dollar mushrooms are very mild with a crisp texture, and when cooked, they develop an earthy flavor with a tender, chewy texture.
Mousseron mushrooms are very small in size with caps ranging 2-3 centimeters in diameter and are attached to thin, slender stems. The caps are convex in shape with curled edges when young, flattening out to a bell shape when mature, and range in color from golden brown, brown, to light tan. Underneath the cap, the tightly packed gills are white and are not connected to the skinny, light tan, fibrous stem. When cooked, Mousseron mushrooms are chewy, slightly crunchy, and tender with a spicy-sweet scent similar to cinnamon and a mild, earthy, and nutty flavor.
Cloud Ear Mushroom
Cloud ear mushrooms are small, averaging 2-10 centimeters in diameter, and have an irregularly curved shape with round and wavy edges, growing in lateral clusters. The surface of the fungus is smooth, silky, and slippery, ranging in color from ivory to white, light brown, to dark brown, and each mushroom is thin and delicate. Cloud ear mushrooms are mild and slightly musty, bearing very little flavor. They are favored for their crisp consistency, even when cooked, and have a snap-like quality with a velvety texture.
Chestnut Royale Mushroom
Chestnut Royale mushrooms are small to medium in size, grown as a single stem or in small groups, and have a convex cap that is attached to a thick, dense stem. The brown to grey-brown cap can grow 2-15 centimeters in diameter and is smooth, velvety, and slightly slimy when wet and young. As the mushroom ages, it will dry and become wrinkled.
The gills underneath the cap are bright white to cream-colored and are evenly spaced connecting to the central, brown stem that narrows near the cap and averages 5-10 centimeters in length. Chestnut Royale mushrooms have a clean, woodsy aroma, a meaty texture, and when cooked, they have a rich, nutty, and mildly sweet flavor.
Also Read: Different types of pumpkins
Candy Cap Mushroom
Candy Cap mushrooms are very small, only 1-2 centimeters in diameter, and are slender with flattened, round caps. The surface of the cap is slightly bumpy with a center divot and ranges in color from brown to burnt-orange with thin edges that may curl and upturn with age. Underneath the cap, pale orange gills line the underside and run down into the stem, and when sliced fresh, the caps produce a milky latex liquid.
The brittle stipe or stem may be hollow or solid, tan to orange, and will have a snap-like quality when removed from the cap. When consumed, Candy Cap mushrooms are sweet in flavor and have a unique aroma that is similar to the scent of maple syrup, butterscotch, or brown sugar.
Morel mushrooms are small to large in size with caps that are oblong, cone-shaped, bulbous, or egg-shaped and are attached to short, stout stems. The cap averages 2-7 centimeters in diameter and ranges in color from blonde, light brown, grey, to dark brown. The fragile, brittle cap also has a hollow, honeycomb-like exterior that consists of many irregular holes and ridges with a small, bumpy texture and attaches directly to the stem.
Inside the cap and stem, there is a hollow cavity running the length of the mushroom and the stem is white and averages 2-9 centimeters in length. When cooked, Morel mushrooms are meaty and tender with a deep, earthy, nutty, and woodsy flavor.
- A list of Types of Mushrooms: https://grocycle.com/types-of-mushrooms/
- Edible Mushrooms: https://cleangreensimple.com/article/different-types-of-mushrooms/
- Mushrooms in Australia: https://myfoodbook.com.au/tips/12-different-types-of-mushrooms
- Facts About Mushroom: https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mushroom
- Mushrooms: https://www.britannica.com/science/mushroom
- Mushroom Diseases And Pests: https://plantvillage.psu.edu/topics/mushrooms/infos